Food safety and hygiene  is very important area in any food industries . Food factories has to keep
basic good house keeping and  hygiene standards as any lack  in this area would result  in very poor
performance of the business . This is also important as the Consumers are very sensitive to foreign
body complaints or anything which might effects individual healths . Some governments has imposed
very strict quality parameter for ingredients and their storage practices .Food safety in bakery
industry has certain features which are  different from other  food factories .

As consumers have become educated on  food safety  standards  and health safety . Governments
have responded with more laws  on food safety  .It  would be highly recommended that bakery  
manufacturers  invest good amount of  funds to the food safety equipments and measures .

To handle these issue  International standards are being followed . Companies have opted for
HACCP certification .

Important  Food safety  consideration for  any  bakery manufacturers

Laws and regulations /  Vendors selection for raw materials /Food safety plans / Traceability / Recall
plan / Documentation /Audits and inspection


More about HACCP


Food safety  in bakeries can be achieved through

GMPS  : GOOD MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES

GHP :  GOOD HYGIENE  PRACTICES

Key areas  and equipments  for food safety and hygienes for bakery  plants are

  • Pest control
Factory  or ware house or retail shops  are prone to pest  different type s of pest grow in unhygienic
environment or where food material are available .Most prevalent  pest are flies , cockroaches ,
rodents ,birds, spiders  and reptiles . The
pest control management  system one should adopt is to  
prevent , control and eliminate such pest  because if they are allowed to grow they could easily infect
the raw  material  and finished goods .Various chemicals and technologies have come to capture and
kill these pest . Few  mentioned are  
insecticutors , air curtains and  pvc curtains.


  • Employees hygiene

Employee hygiene  also contributes  to food safety .Employees have to wear protective clothes
where  ever they come in direct contact of food .It covers  heads , clothes and shoes , gloves .Visitors
to any food factory has to be asked to  follow the food safety procedures . Includes washing hands by
potassium permagnate .Wearing protective covers to the shoes etc .Food handlers should not be
allowed to wear accessories like rings , any ornaments or accessories .


  • Medical check up and medical records of food handlers .
Food manufacturing industry normally follows practice of getting their food handlers  checked and
examined  by doctors for any contagious disease .Medical records are kept and in case any food
handlers is found to be infected  by  disease  then that worker is shifted to other department



  • Cleanliness of factory
Sanitation of  factory premises includes cleaning and washing of  factory , washrooms  and canteens
floor sweepings of larger areas can be achieved through  automated floor sweeping machines  like
scrubbers and washer  various
industrial floor cleaning equipments   are available now days . Manual  
push and pull type  and  driver mounted floor washers are available . Chemicals are also available to  
kill bacteria and worms  and remove  bad odour .

  • Storage of  raw materials and finished goods
Storage of raw material and finished good requires  regular monitoring . Raw materials have to kept in
dry and cool place certain material has to be kept in cold room as required . Humidity can damage  
certain bakery products  . Raw material should be always kept on  
plastic pallets and never on floors .
A gaps has to kept from the wall and between the pallets .Silos  for bulk storage is highly
recommended .

  • Drainage system
Good drainage system has to be designed for smooth flow of  domestic waste  water and trade waste
water to the collection pit . Effluent and sewerage treatment plant  to be installed  as per regulatory
requirement .

  • Metal  Detection

Magnets- Magnets  to  be installed  at all the places  where ever required  to detect any  metal
particles  in the raw material

Sieves-   Materials to passed  through sieves wherever
possible to check for any foreign particles and contamination

Metal detectors- Metal detectors can be placed in the
process
to check for any metal and non metal contamination.

Filters -- Liquid ingredients to passed  through these
filters
to prevent any contamination .

  • Glass policies

All glasses under  production areas need to be safe break type   and windows to be safe break;ie in
case of any glass breakage the glass shouldn,t  break and fall into the products . Tube lights and
other lighting fixtures to be safe break even clocks placed need to be safe break.


  • Jewellery  policies

Most  of the bakeries  employs  women workers  who as per traditions wear  jewellery  during work .
These jewellery  are of various types and could  be hazard  for  any food processing unit . A clear cut
jewellery policy should be defined for women folks to adhere . Jewelleries like  bangles , hair clips ,
chains , rings  etc   can  be dangerous if worn  while working .


  • Plastic   policies
Various  plastic  items  are used in bakeries during process and storage  eg bottles , buckets ,
funnels , scoops , spoon and lab items ( beaker ,jars and testubes etc ). A clear cut plastic policy
could be drawn to avoid  any  contamination of  food products from these plastic items .


  • Visitors   policies

Bakery units have frequent visitors  for  various functions in  its production hall  from service
personnel  , out sourced maintenance personnel , consultants , educational tours  etc . To  prevent  
any  contaminations from these visitors food manufacturing  companies  draws  a  visitor policies
giving instructions  to visitors  as to  what  are basic requirement during  visit to  production hall . eg  
wearing coats , caps and gloves as they enter  these premises  with  instruction  not  to touch or feel
the products  etc.


  • Water
Water is used in all bakery operations .the purity has to be checked for the presence of microbes and
certain minerals and contaminations if any . Filters to be provided at various places in process .Water
storage tanks to be cleaned  in regular intervals .


  • Solid  Waste Management
All  soiled waste  to be stored in garbage bags and to shifted  to outside  garbage yard .Garbage  
should always be covered and should not be open in any case . Bins  with cover  should be used
where ever possible .
Plastic crates can be used to store defectives and unpacked products


  • Cleaning of  utensils and equipments
All utensils need to be cleaned  in regular intervals  for  any contamination due to material decay.
Bands and crates to be cleaned in regular intervals to maintain the hygiene of the equipments . Hot
water is most suitable for such cleaning process.

  • Lubrication

Lubrication   or greasing  of  machines drive ,chains and sprockets could be  done  by   food
lubricants  .Various  food lubricants are available  in markets . Even certain guides requires
lubrication these guides can be lubricated by  food lubricants



  • Material of construction
Material of construction  of all  bakery equipment and machinery should be stainless steel
316 grades which is  food grade and does not got rust on it surface .Other material get to affected by
rust .All utensils and other holding should also be food grade  s.s or plastic.



  • Building  design  and maintenance
Ensure that   walls of building  are crack proof  and  floors are tiled  no openings are found in the
floor .Design of building has to be such that it is rodent , pest  and bird proof .Daily inspection for
baits, sanitation and  cleanliness are  followed . Windows has to be covered by mesh so as to prevent
flies . Doors has to be such that it gets closed automatically . Lighting outside the plant should be
such that It does not attract  insects inside the factory ie It should be at some distance.



  • Food safety management systems (fsms)  and  food safety  Audits
Food Factories world over have  implemented one or the other fsms to standardise operations with
respect to food safety  .Major fsms are
HACCP , BRC , ISO22000, SQF , these certification helps food
manufacturing units  to achieve food safety  standards . Regular food safety audits which are
mandatory in these certified units  help manufacturers for  compliance . Corrective and preventive
measures  are taken in case of any lapses/deviation/non-compliances from manufacturer side .It is
there fore highly recommended to have fsms certification done for  bakeries.



















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